The concept of a brand new “gas union” was floated at a really consequential time, amid an unusually harsh winter within the area. Since the second half of November, a number of Central Asian nations have skilled unprecedented vitality deficits and pure fuel shortages. This coincided with a snap presidential election in Kazakhstan. So, it was throughout Kazakh President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev’s first overseas go to — to Russia — after starting his second time period that the thought of a “trilateral gas union” was aired in late November.
As press secretary for the Kazakh chief Ruslan Zheldibay commented: “…the talks between the presidents of Kazakhstan and Russia in the Kremlin focused on the creation of a ‘trilateral gas union’ between Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan with the purpose of coordinating their actions in order to transport Russian gas through the territories of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.”
Over the subsequent few days, the proposal was elaborated upon by Kremlin spokesman Dmitri Peskov, who talked in regards to the creation of a joint firm that might handle vitality infrastructure. “The proposal implies the creation of a certain legal entity for cooperation between these three countries, and for infrastructure development, then for foreign markets,” said Peskov.
This assertion recommended Russia’s want to develop its pure fuel export routes within the course of Central Asia and maybe partially substitute for the losses of the European export market.
The Western press and a few native specialists’ preliminary response was centered on the expansionist dimension of Russia’s pursuits within the area. Most commentators famous that Russia arguably desires to extend its political grip over Central Asia and create one more level of leverage to extend its political presence within the area. In order to confront this imaginative and prescient, the leaders of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan made it clear that the 2 nations usually are not keen to hitch any political unions and are prepared to debate the proposal solely on industrial phrases.
For instance, Uzbek Energy Minister Jurabek Mirzamahmudov mentioned: “Signing a gas agreement with Russia does not mean an alliance or union… it would be a technical contract… We will never compromise our national interests. Even if we [agree to receive natural gas from Russia], we will proceed via commercial sales contracts. We will not allow any political conditions to be imposed in return.” He added that Uzbekistan would conform to get pure fuel from Russia solely “at a reasonable price.”
Deputy Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan Almas Aidarov confirmed that they’ve acquired a proposal from Russia; nonetheless, as summarized by Tengri News he mentioned, “it is not formalized in any way, we have not received any details or concrete offers from the Russian side.” He noted that Russia made the proposal.
Current Socio-economic Risks
The winter revealed main issues with vitality provide and administration within the Central Asian area which have been accumulating for years. If in earlier a long time it was provincial cities and cities that routinely skilled electrical energy and heating shortages (particularly within the winter months), this 12 months the identical downside was evident in some capital cities of the area, together with Tashkent. In January 2022, a blackout caused “chaos across the region for several hours, with subway trains stuck in tunnels and skiers on lifts, airports closing, district heating and tap water pumps going idle and traffic lights switching off,” which happened as a result of energy outage in Uzbekistan’s vitality system.
This winter hit a lot tougher. On November 2022, an influence plant in Ekibastuz, Kazakhstan, broke down, leaving the complete metropolis with no heating with an outdoor temperature beneath -30 levels Celsius. The similar month, Uzbekistan halted its pure fuel exports to China to satisfy home wants and obvious shortages. In December and January, the temperature in Tashkent went beneath -15 levels Celsius and was accompanied by heavy snow, which resulted in main electrical energy, heating, and pure fuel shortages within the capital metropolis.
As The Diplomat’s Catherine Putz concluded, “winters in Central Asia have increasingly featured blackouts or breakdowns thanks to aged infrastructure; it’s a serious political and social issue in the region.”
It is tough to disagree, and this basic development will solely worsen sooner or later for a number of key causes. Natural fuel manufacturing in Uzbekistan has been slowly declining for the reason that Nineteen Nineties, and on the similar time, demand has quickly risen as a result of a rising economic system and a booming inhabitants. Moreover, Uzbekistan’s industrial complexes and central heating programs traditionally (for the reason that Soviet period) have relied on pure fuel as a significant supply for masking electrical energy and heating wants. The vitality system throughout Central Asia was designed this manner, because the area was thought of plentiful in pure fuel. And through the Soviet interval vitality was managed from the middle, not between unbiased states. For most nations in Central Asia, and for Uzbekistan particularly, pure fuel is a strategic useful resource and shortages in provide may imply catastrophic penalties for the economic system and social stability.
Existing Alternatives and Possible Benefits From New Gas Imports
The renewable or “green” vitality sources that Uzbekistan has been investing in over the previous few years are unable to cowl the rising electrical energy deficit. The CIA World Factbook outlines that electrical energy era from photo voltaic, wind, tide and wave, geothermal, biomass and waste – i.e. from all “green energy” sources in Uzbekistan — is lower than 1 % of complete electrical energy era within the nation (as of 2020). There are few rapid prospects to extend inexperienced vitality electrical energy manufacturing sufficient to have a considerable influence within the close to future.
Furthermore, these tasks require huge funding, most of which might go to overseas firms (Canada, China, UAE) and wouldn’t be used for growing and sustaining current abilities, posing the query of dependence on the provision of photo voltaic panels, generators, or windmill rotors, the manufacturing of which isn’t localized.
Nuclear vitality may have been another steady supply of electrical energy era that might not solely cowl home wants however would have a major export potential. However, building of a nuclear plant takes appreciable time – building might final for over a decade – and comes with political dangers. Moreover, it will require a steady provide of water and complete modernization of the electrical grid to permit for high-voltage transportation of generated electrical energy from the nuclear station. Uzbekistan’s outdated and aged electrical grid system requires modernization, although it’s also unfeasible to exchange it instantly.
Putting “dirty” (with highest share of CO2 emission) conventional vitality sources equivalent to oil and coal apart, this temporary evaluation leaves us with the conclusion that there are not any actual alternate options to pure fuel as the principle supply of vitality in Uzbekistan within the close to future.
Given that the nationwide pure fuel manufacturing charge has steadily declined, the important thing query must be: Which importing accomplice may reliably compensate for the deficit?
At this time, Turkmenistan is the one supply of imported fuel in Uzbekistan. However, counting on only one supply for imports of such a significant commodity is all the time dangerous. In this manner, diversification of pure fuel imports is a win-win scenario for Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan not solely will get another supply of pure fuel provide (in case Turkmenistan would face inner or exterior pressures that might jeopardize its potential to export pure fuel, or sudden disruptions in fuel provide just like the one occurred in January 2023) however may additionally leverage the worth and thus transfer from value taker to cost setter place.
Uzbekistan additionally has essential contract obligations to export pure fuel to China, and this 12 months Uzbek authorities needed to droop its fuel exports, placing in danger its fame as a steady exporter and posing a danger of potential contract penalty. Moreover, Uzbekistan has further contract obligations to produce pure fuel to Tajikistan and electrical energy to Afghanistan.
The rapid reactions of each media and state officers had been primarily directed at potential questions related to the threats to nationwide safety and sovereignty. Indeed, Russia may obtain essential leverage over Central Asian nations if it turns into a key vitality provider to the area. However, there are a number of issues that decrease this potential danger.
First, Russia won’t ever grow to be the only real vitality provider to the area as a result of every of the Central Asian nations talked about on this article have their very own massive pure fuel deposits: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan are all main pure fuel producers that cowl most of their very own home wants. Therefore, even in a crucial scenario there will probably be sufficient pure fuel within the area to cowl strategic wants – sure, this quantity won’t be ideally comfy for the general public (particularly throughout winters which might be as harsh as this one) however there’s sufficient home provide to make sure survival.
Second, Europe’s dependence on Russia’s pure fuel was over 40 % — a quantity that’s unimaginable within the situations of Central Asia. Yet, all predictions that forecasted the catastrophic collapse of Europe’s economic system with out low-cost Russian fuel didn’t come true. Even such a significant dependence that the EU nations allowed for is probably manageable in a disaster scenario. Moreover, pure fuel shouldn’t be the one supply of vitality and electrical energy era within the area – there are coal and hydroelectric energy stations that cowl substantial electrical energy wants.
Third, Russia-Central Asia relations have been lengthy and comparatively steady and are characterised as a strategic partnership by either side, with main mutual interdependencies in lots of spheres past vitality. The existential points that exist within the EU-Russia relationship, such because the battle in Ukraine, don’t exist in the identical method in Russia-Central Asia relations. This provides hope that any new partnerships may yield steady vitality contracts with out potential disturbances on the horizon (Ukraine was a looming disaster in EU-Russia relations for many years earlier than it “exploded” totally final 12 months).
Any vitality FDI mission is related to political danger until the nation has its personal abilities, information, and substitution capability. Building a nuclear plant, or partaking in inexperienced vitality tasks the place all of the elements which might be topic to common replacements are produced overseas, isn’t any much less of a dependence than permitting for another supply of pure fuel. However, Uzbekistan has lengthy custom and abilities in pure fuel manufacturing, utilization, and transportation, which might probably make such dependence extra manageable than any of the alternate options.
There are not any main alternate options to pure fuel to make sure the steady and regular growth of Uzbekistan’s economic system and society, particularly if we’re speaking in regards to the close to to mid-term future. As home pure fuel reserves decline, the query of provide turns into starker. Booming home wants and elevated deficits usually are not solely projected however bodily possible and detrimental, because the previous two years have proven. Receiving another supply of vitality provide is a profit particularly if this may cowl marginal wants (as much as 15-20 % from complete home vitality consumption) for the explanations recognized above.
The foremost query that continues to be issues technical issues: What are the required investments to permit for such fuel switch from Russia to Uzbekistan? Technical specialists have to find out what’s the present state of the Central Asia-Center pipeline (which connects Turkmenistan to Russia through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan), whether or not Uzbekistan is able to receiving fuel from Russia, and what different bills on infrastructure enchancment are essential to make this mission technically and commercially possible.