In 1969 Stony Brook University was in dire straits. Having been rocked by anti-war protests, pupil calls for for a Black research program, and a drug raid on campus, the establishment was beneath strain to radically rework simply over a decade after its founding. Amid these circumstances, the varsity invited British Guyanese artist Frank Bowling to curate an exhibition of works by Black artists, sponsored by a brand new “Afro-American Studies Program.” Bowling seized on the chance, later declaring that “young people clamoring for more and better Black studies” have been its “natural audience.”
Bowling invited 5 African American artists—Melvin Edwards, Daniel LaRue Johnson, Al Loving, Jack Whitten, and William T. Williams—to affix him in exhibiting work. The present’s title, “5+1,” gently set him aside as each the curator and the one non-American participant. Despite their disagreements about representational politics and their various relationships with predominantly white gatekeeping establishments, the artists lamented the reigning expectation that Black artists ought to produce overtly political, figurative work. At the time, abstraction was usually presumed to be the protect of white artists with silver-spoon upbringings; outstanding advocates like Clement Greenberg systematically missed Black artists. Bowling and his artists showcased their work at a time when main establishments have been simply starting to work with Black artists, and so they neither spoke on to political questions of the day within the recognizable model of the Black Arts Movement (BAM) nor acted detached to the battle to enhance situations for Black artwork. The exhibition demonstrated extra indeterminate types of expression to the identical younger college students who have been attending Black Students Union conferences, writing fiery op-eds, and collaborating in sit-ins.
Little survives from “5+1,” except for the pamphlet and images of the energetic opening by photographer and painter Adger Cowans. “Revisiting 5+1,” staged this winter on the Paul W. Zuccaire campus gallery at Stony Brook, is the results of assiduous analysis by professors and PhD candidates into the unique exhibition, regardless of the archival gaps. A variety of the unique works have since been misplaced or destroyed, so the present present reveals works by the identical artists made across the late ’60s. It additionally incorporates work by ladies; Howardena Pindell curated a piece that presents Black feminine artists energetic within the Nineteen Sixties and ’70s who additionally created work largely out of step with BAM and struggled to obtain recognition from main establishments.
Prominently featured in each the 1969 exhibition and “Revisiting 5+1” are comparable barbed wire curtains by Edwards, hemmed on the backside by lengths of rusted steel chain. Although their supplies have associations with confinement and oppression, each works rework the extreme wire and steel right into a gossamer-like and playful structure. In Cowans’s footage, out-of-focus strands of wire usually float harmlessly within the foreground of animated conversations between artists and associates, including texture and a way of leisure to the pictures.
Other standout works embody a big 1968 portray by Whitten that instructions the exhibition with its infernal blood-orange hue. Layered with indeterminate kinds, faint gestures evoking spray paint, and broad strokes and dripping splatters of oil, the canvas is energetic and chaotic, reflecting its turbulent instances. Near Whitten’s canvas is an untitled Johnson portray (ca. 1969) on a tall wooden panel exhibiting an elongated, pyramidal form composed of candy-colored vertical bands truncated earlier than they attain their pinnacle. The central band is an intense yellow beam. The portray’s propulsive directionality, dropped at an finish forward of its acme, would possibly evoke thwarted intelligence and function. Alternatively, it encourages viewers to finish the mission on their very own.
Pindell’s part encompasses a spread of attitudes, mediums, and inventive considerations. Jabberwocky, a canvas from 1976–77 by activist artist Mary Lovelace O’Neal, is blackened with soot. Though O’Neal confronted criticism for an absence of political messaging in her artwork, her use of shade on this work is in reality socially highly effective: on the time, soot and the colour black have been loaded with political and aesthetic that means, with some artists concerning black as an necessary signifier of African American identification. Feeble traces of blue and pink peek by way of the charcoal, a proper gesture that O’Neal mentioned was impressed by the “shot of light” that might pierce by way of “black spaces of flatness” within the sky of the Bay Area, the place she lived. Elsewhere, a gentle, sunny, semi-figural piece by Vivian Browne, painted after a 1971 journey to West Africa, likens the arch of a again to a dangling, particularly ripe banana. Browne’s journey marked a turning level in her observe: impressed by the area’s vivid colours, textiles, and sculptures, she moved towards a extra summary model. Another gem within the present is Betye Saar’s Eyeball, a 2-minute movie (an unusual medium for Saar) that includes a procession of eyes mischievously close-cropped and edited to provide a haunting, depersonalized, environment.
While “Revisiting 5+1” is thrilling for its doubling of Bowling’s ambition, it additionally feels disconnected. Men and ladies are separated, and there’s little dialogue of how the unique contributors and newly included artists influenced and critiqued one another. Discussion of how the work of Black ladies summary artists was additional excluded and devalued within the late twentieth century is proscribed to a list essay.
In his essay for the 1969 exhibition, Bowling wrote, “The structure of Black life has revealed, over centuries, a creative, self-perpetuating process of anarchist, pro-life zeal which a study of the fine arts and history alone, though helpful, can never fully define.” Viewers would possibly crave historic or sociopolitical referents for the various summary gestures on show—may the breaks of sunshine in O’Neal’s work characterize the issue of particular person expression amid prevailing calls for on Black artists, or may Eyeball learn because the repurposing of a surveilling gaze forged on Black ladies? In the tip, these explanations show to be contortions for justifying work that requires no such justification.